George Unite – A Birmingham Silversmith and His Family

George Unite was born in Birmingham, Warwickshire in 1799. His father was Charles Unite (b1775 ). Not much is known of his early life but George Unite was apprenticed to Joseph Willmore in 1810, and went on to register his own makers mark in 1832, which was used until 1865.

George married Ann Wilkenson (b1840) on 3rd October 1824 at St Peter and St Paul in Aston, Warwickshire. Their eldest son George Richard Unite was born that same year. The couple had 7 children in total – George Richard was followed by Dora in 1827, Samuel b1829, Barbara b1831, Edward b1833, William Oliver b1835 and Frances b1841.

The eldest son George William Unite had followed his father into the silversmithing business by 1860. He married Anne Maria Loach that year at St Bride Fleet Street London, and gave his occupation as silversmith. Anne was a widow three years older than George William, and the couple had no children.

The second son Samuel was listed in the 1851 census as a silversmith, although it seems he specialised in the fashionable Japanware, being listed as a Japaner with premises at 27 Northwood Street in Birmingham in 1855. He married in 1856 but died in 1861 without children aged 32.

The census of 1861 shows the third son Edward still living in the family home of 65 Caroline Street, Birmingham, and his occupation is given as jeweller. The street today lies within the Birmingham jewellery quarter. Four years later in 1865, the business became George Unite and Sons, and all three sons were involved in the business. This agreement continued after George Unite’s death 4th July 1874 until 1896 when, with the death of eldest son George Richard Unite, the business partnership dissolved.

Third son Edward had married Mary Jane Moffat in Sollihull in 1867. They had one son – George Willoughby Grosvenor Unite b 1871. The fourth son William Oliver Unite had married in 1861. He had 4 children but his only son George Lander Oliver Unite predeceased him in 1886, dying aged just 14.

Of George’s three daughters, Barbara and Dora didn’t marry. The youngest child Frances married Thomas Turner a gun maker in 1868. The Unite family wealth seeems to have gone to Edward’s only son George Willoughby Grosvenor Unite, who was independently wealthy. Marrying in 1900, the 1901 census shows him as living on his own means with 2 servants. He died in 1942 age 71 at Granard House, 98 Dovehouse Street London, leaving £66,000 to his widow Mary. In today’s money that would be £2.6 million.

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Late 18th Century and Early Nineteenth Century Porcelain Handles: Loop, Ring & Wishbone

One of the most striking features of porcelain collecting is the array of different handles used in the early nineteenth century. However, frequently used designs incorporated aspects of the loop, ring and wishbone patterns.

Simple loop handles: these handles are a single loop. These can be plain or adorned. In this example of a Newhall cup decorated in pattern 155, the handle has gilt decoration on the handle sides and down the centre.Figure 1

 

Ring handle – a ring handle has circle within the handle. This example is an Old Derby coffee can dating to about 1810. Figure 2

 

Wishbone Handle – the wishbone handle looks like a J shape. The top part of the handle is often flat for the thumb to hold, then the lower part of the handle forms the second part of the wishbone. This is shown in the lovely Old Derby teacup below. In this instance the handle is undecorated.Figure 3b

 

Meadowlands: An Iconic Art Deco Burleigh Ware Pattern

Of the many English pottery companies Burleigh is one of the great survivors. Established in 1851 as Burgess and Leigh the business has had its ups and downs. One of the greatest periods for Burleigh was the Art Deco period of the late 1920s and 1930s. During this time Burgess and Leigh had an incredibly creative team of modellers and designers, including Earnest Bailey and Harold Bennett. Harold Bennett at this time functioned as the Art Director of the company and was responsible for introducing Art Deco tableware modelled by the Earnest Bailey to the UK market. Many of these designs were revolutionary, such as the wonderfully angular Zenith designs decorated with patterns such as the beautifully colourful and striking Meadowlands which swept the market. It isn’t hard to see why the period between the late 1920s and the Second World War has been described as the golden age of Burleigh Ware.

Today Burgess and Leigh Art Deco pottery is gaining again in popularity. Good examples are rare but do occasionally become available on the collectors market where they achieve quite good prices.

Above is nice example of a Burgess and Leigh Art Deco Zenith design Meadowlands patterned china coffee set consisting of a  coffee pot, six cups and saucers, a milk jug and a sugar bowl. Full sets like this are rare and extremely hard to find largely because dealers often sell pieces individually. As a result of this full sets like this do not stay in a display long. For example this particular coffee set was sold by Gloucester Antiques Centre within a week of being displayed. The buyer intended to display it and occasionally use it.

William Comyns

The silversmiths firm of William Comyns was established in approximately 1859 and by the early 1880s had become notable because of the high quality decorative silver ware the company produced. William Comyns gained particular fame for pieces incorporating highly integrate designs and also for his silver and tortoise shell pieces incorporating William Comynshigh quality silver pique work. The popularity of William Comyns was aided by the company selling its products via prestigious London retailers such as Tiffany and Co, Henry Lewis, etc. The desirability of William Comyns silver and Tortoiseshell pieces was so great that William Comyns became the primary and most desirable producers of items such as the highly ornate tortoiseshell and silver clocks. Examples of these in good condition fetch very good prices at auction. William Comyns also collaborated with good porcelain  manufacturers such as Royal Worcester and Crown Staffaordshire to produce some wonderful silver and porcelain tea and coffee sets consisting of fine china coffee cans held within ornate silver holders presented on matching china saucers (Figure 3).

Figure 3 for Comyns BlogThere are collectors who specialise in William Comyns and because of this good pieces are steadily disappearing into private collections. This of course makes William Comyns silver quite hard to find with a consequent knock on effect in terms of value. However, it is still possible to acquire good pieces at reasonable prices, for example a late Victorian William Comyns Bonbon spoon (Figure 1) may be bought for between £150 – £200 and, a good Edwardian William Comyns silver and tortoiseshell trinket box (Figure 2) may be bought for between £450 – £550.  We try to ensure that  keep a number of Victorian and Edwardian William Comyns pieces in stock.

Rudolstadt Porcelain

The antique porcelain market in the UK is dominated by a combination of Chinese porcelain and English porcelain  from Staffordshire, Worcestershire and Derby. Strangely the English buyer of porcelain seems to be less well informed about continental porcelain. Thus in the UK porcelain from France, Germany and Austria is not always fully appreciated. Take for example Rudolstadt porcelain.  Although easily recognized by buyers in Europe and North America, Rudolstadt remains pretty much unrecognised in the UK, with some of the beautiful Rudolstadt blushware pieces being mistaken by British buyers for Royal Worcester!

Figure1aThe history of Rudolstadt porcelain goes back to 1869 when the German company Lazarus Straus & Sons (L.S.&S) was established to sell imported  ceramics. The Younger member of this partnership Nathan Strauss must have had a very good entrepreneurial mind because in 1874 it seems he managed to form a business agreement with none other than R.H.Macy’s & Co. For those not familiar with Macy’s, R.H.Macy is a mid to upper range US chain of department stores initially established by Rowland Hussey Macy who opened 4 dry goods stores between 1843 and 1855. These initial businesses failed but he eventually moved to New York where he opened R.H.Macy & Co on 6th Avenue. The business grew and despite some difficulties along the way gave rise to the huge chain store brand that Macey’s represents today.

This business relationship between Nathan Strauss and Macey’s allowed Lazarus Straus & Sons retail space in every Macey’s store, thus opening up the US export market.  This actually led to the formation of a US company, New York and Rudolstadt Pottery Co. Inc. 1882. This US company traded in the porcelain manufactured in and shipped over from the German factory, which functioned independently from its US partner.

Figure3aTo meet the growing demand of its growing export market Lazarus Straus & Sons expanded, Figure2aopening decorating studios in France and Bohemia giving rise to L.S.& S. Limoges’ and the Austrian ‘L.S.&S. Carlsbad. Both these decorating studios used their own decorators mark. However, the mark used in Germany revolved around a crown over a shield shaped lozenge containing the letters RW for Rudolstadt Works. Variations of this mark were used between 1895 and 1924, with a more ornate version being used between 1900 and 1918.

The quality of the porcelain and the quality of the painting was superb and Lazarus Straus & Sons porcelain rivaled the very best porcelain manufactured across Europe and the US. Take for example the lovely pair of Rudolstadt vases shown in Figure 1.  They are of a classical form  with a long  ovoid body extending up towards a partially fluted  neck. The form of the vases is finished with lovely ornate handles extending from the necks to the vase bodies.  The form of these vases alone is not only pleasing to the eye, but incredibly tactile. However the story does not stop there.  These blush ivory vases have been richly decorated with stunning flowers, and leaves with fine tube lining of the leaf veins in gilt and tube lining of the petal extremities to give the painting a rich almost three dimensional quality (Figure 2). Each vase is truly a work of art and caries the more ornate Rudolstadt  (figure 3) mark indicating a date of manufacture between 1900 and 1918.

The English Waltham Watches

by Morgan Denyer (Penrose Antiques Ltd)

Here is a bit of a horological heresey, the English Waltham! The Waltham watch company was steeped in American History, the company was founded by David Davies, Edward Howard and Aaron Lufkin Dennison who  in 1850 set up a company in Roxbury Massachusetts to manufacture watch parts. The company was reputedly set up under a cloud of secrecy because David Davies, Edward Howard and Aaron Lufkin Dennison were going to do something quite inventive, set up a watch manufacturing company in which all the components were made in their watch factory subject to strict quality control. This was quite unheard of and pretty much a world first. The watches they produced represented  a revolution in watch making, they could mass produce watches with interchangeable parts.

The first watches were made in 1852, and the company was named the Boston Watch Company in 1853. However the cost of production and retooling took its toll and the company was declared bankrupt resulting in the sale of the factory and larger machines to Royal E Robinns in 1857. He renamed the company Appleton Tracy & Company (ATCo) and retained Aaron Dennison as the factory superintendent. That year the company completed the development of the Model 1857 movement. By 1861 and the start of the American Civil War, ATCo had started to manufacture the William Ellery Model 57 watch. These watches were cheaply mass produced and became popular with Union soldiers who could buy them from roving merchants for a mere $13 or so. It seems that by the end of the civil war in 1865, the William Every Model 57 (Figure 1) accounted for 44.6% of the Waltham sales with the American Civil War Ellery watch serial number reaching around 161,000. (see  “Origins of the Waltham Model 57”   and “A closer look at a Civil War watch “ ).

Figure 1 Blog2Heated debate about the Ellery 57 Model watch represented a turning point in the career of Aaron Dennison. He fell out with Robinns in 1861 and Robinns eventually dismissed him for being a “vocal Dissenter” in 1862. One can imagine that this was a bit of a blow, but the success of the Ellery 57 and the perceived vindication of Dennison’s views seemed to drive him on to his next commercial venture.  In 1864 Dennison took the opportunity to set up the Tremont Watch Company with A. O. Bigelow. The idea here was to assemble watches in the US from fine parts sourced in Switzerland and larger parts sourced in America. Seemed like a good plan, but whilst Dennison was away in Switzerland organising the transport of components, his partners decided to move the company to Melrose and manufacture complete watches there. Needless to say Dennison was not pleased, he left the new company predicting utter disaster and moved to Birmingham England in 1871 where he established a watch case making business in 1872. His timing was perfect because of the opening in 1874 of the London office of the American Watch Company by N.P. Stratton, (assistant superintendant to Dennison in 1857, see “Watches Factories of America; Past and Present” by Henry G Abbott). Here was a ready market for Dennison’s cases and the person he had to convince of the value of his watch cases was none other than his old assistant superintendent at the American Watch Company. Unsurprisingly the majority of  the output of Dennison’s new watch case manufacturing business ended up being used by the London branch of the American Watch Company. What was particularly interesting about this though was that these early Dennison cases did not carry the Dennison makers mark, but AWCo, presumably because Robbins wouldn’t tolerate a Dennison makers mark on his watches.

Fig 2 Blog 2The association between the Dennison Watch Case Company and AWCo and the Later Waltham Watch Company, was maintained long after Aaron Dennison’s death in 1895. The success of this collaborative venture was exemplified by the Waltham Traveler (Figure 2). The Waltham Traveler consisted of a 7 jewel movement and was favoured for the export market in the early 20th century. Tens of thousands were sent to the UK where they were mostly cased in Dennison gold or gold plated cases. These watches were robust and many have survived in good working order. They represent a very good investment for those wishing to buy a good antique watch. The real benefit of these watches is that because they were mass produced, the parts are readily sourced and are fully interchangeable.

By the First World War Waltham had become a major supplier of watch movements in the UK, but the market was changing. Pocket watches were of little use in the trenches of the European battle fields and troops had started to modify their watches by the addition of wire lugs. Dennison, having his business located in the UK was in a prime position to take advantage of this. By 1914/15 Dennison had started to make transitional or trench watch cases consisting of what looked like pocket watch cases fitted with wire lugs (Figure 3). These were designed to fit Waltham movements and were a favorite with British officers heading of to war. The design actually gained such popularity with the conservative British that the Dennison transitional watch cases were made right through the 1920s and into the mid to late1930s. The latest example we at Penrose Antiques Ltd have encountered dated from 1938.Fig 3a

Post WW1 there were also drivers to further refine wristwatch design. This was very much a period of the tank watch, a design first created by Louis Cartier in 1917. Virtually all watchmakers leaped on the tank watch bandwagon, and Waltham, was no different. By the 1920s Waltham was producing a range of movements designed to fit slim rectangular dress watchcases. Many of these movements made it to the UK to be encased in lovely simple but elegant slim lozenge shaped curved art Art Deco Dennison cases.

In the history of watch making, many watch manufacturers had watch movements made to fit their watch cases, for example the American Ball Watch Company used Swiss made Avia watch movement. Thus one could argue that the Walthams assembled in the UK form English made Dennison cases represent a special bread of English Walthams. After all many of the Dennison cases, although designed to fit Waltham movements were also designed for the English market. For example the early trench watch cases made by Dennison specifically met the needs of the British heading off to the trenches. The design was only later adopted by Waltham in the US to meet the needs of American troops post April 6th 1917 when the USA entered the war. So perhaps Britain, via the efforts and perseverance of Aaron Dennison can bathe in a small portion of the glory of the historically great American Waltham Watch Company.

The association with Dennison and the English market may also have played a part in the eventual downfall of the Waltham Watch Company. The British were by nature very conservative, but the UK was a major market for Waltham. Perhaps to meet the needs of this market, Waltham maintained a more conservative output, and it may have been that the English conservative influence led  Waltham watches to be perceived as a bit boring in the home US market. This perception of conservatism was believed to have played a part in a decline of sales and the eventual bankruptcy of the Waltham Watch Company  in 1949 and closure of the American Waltham Watch factory in 1957.

The Great Ocean Liners Potter

The popularity of cruise holidays has grown in recent years and represents a continuation of a great elegant tradition, that of the great ocean liners of the late 19th and early 20th Century. Opulence was the word from luxurious fabrics to state of the art gadgets combined with the best dining experience and sumptuous state-rooms, the great age of the ocean liners was truly a Bishop & Stonier Water Jug and Bowl 1playground for the well healed traveler. Obviously only the best was good enough and this applied to everything, including the china. One major supplier of china to the luxury shipping industry was the company Bishop and Stonier. The company Bishop and Stonier was formed by William Livesley, Edwin Powell and Fredrick Bishop under the name of Livesley Powell & Co in 1851. Livesley and Powell were both potters, but Bishop was a lawyer who funded the operation. Much of their wares were shipped to the USA, for example in 1851 over one million items were recorded as having been shipped to New York. On Livesley’s retirement in 1866 the company name changed to Powell and Bishop. In 1878 Powell and Bishop were joined by John Stonier. John Stonier was a glass and china merchant based in Liverpool who had built up a considerable business fitting out the great liners of the day, including the ships of the White Star Line. In 1891 Stonier formed a new company with Duncan Watson Bishop using the trade mark Bisto incorporating the first two letters of both their names along with the Wand of Caduceus. Their advertising slogan was “The sun never sets on Bisto ware” and of course this implied a link with Bisto ware and the glamour of the great liners plying the oceans of the world. Stonier and Co was the supplier of china for the Titanic and unsurprisingly Bisto ware featured highly on board the ill-fated ship, including plates carrying the small pattern used in 1st Class along with the Delft pattern and Flow pattern used in 2nd Class. By the 1920s many producers of pottery had started to experiment with more flamboyant patterns and colours. Bisto was amongst these and produced a number of quite eye catching art deco bathroom sets (Figure 1) along with the now famed Aztec ware. Bisto was sold to George Jones & Sons in 1933 and they continued to use the Bisto mark until 1939. For more details about the china aboard the Titanic see “A look at the china patterns used on Titanic“. For more details about Bishop & Stonier marks see the Potters Index.

The Antique Cradle

Every antique dealer should have an antique cradle. It’s almost a rite of passage. However, it is very hard to say why. Perhaps the reason lies in the fact that caring for a child is a prime instinct and that somehow a cradle in a display gives warmth, conjuring up the image of a safe, homely scene with the baby gentle being rocked to sleep by a doting parent. How cosey the scene seems! That the cradle conveys this image is set deep into our psyche, one only has to think of nursery rhymes “Rock-a-bye baby”. The concept of the crib even infiltrates our understanding of the very foundations of our society –  “the cradle of civilisation” for example.

A Georgian oak cradle, circa 1780.

Figure 1 A Georgian oak cradle dating from approximately 1780. This cradle is available at Carlton Fine Art and Antiques Centre, Salts Mills,

The cradle itself has been around for as long as we have existed, the prehistory cradles no doubt ranged from simple bark cradles to more sophisticated cradles not dissimilar to those produced today. The basic design being a box or receptacle that a baby can be placed in and easily rocked to sleep probably hasn’t changed for centuries. The cradle, along with a bed, has historically been one of the first items added to a household. By the 18th century cradles used by the wealthy became status pieces, many of the Georgian versions were sturdily made from hardwoods such as oak and mahogany and were designed with hooded ends and sometimes decorated with Gothic inspired spires and embellishments (Figure 1). These were large pieces of furniture made to last for years and they were passed on through families so becoming the cradle of the generations. However, fashions and styles change, and by the Victorian period cradles, although still following the same basic design, became softer, a trend that has continued through into the 20th and 21st Century.

This sort of brings us back to the original question – why should an antique dealer have a cradle in a display? I think the answer lies in the fact that a cradle calls to the innate parent in all of us.

George W Adams and the Chawner Silversmiths

By Rachel Denyer (Penrose Antiques Ltd)

January 1797 in England started with violent winds and stormy seas. January 4th fell on a Wednesday and on that day Jonthan Chawner, a tanner from Horncastle in Lincoln, travelledFigure 1 to London to sign apprentice indenture papers with William Fearn for his son William ChWilliam Chawner salt spoonawner.[1]

William Fearn was a well-respected silversmith known for producing quality flatware. 1797 also saw him begin a partnership with William Eley, and a joint makers mark was registered.[2] William Eley had done his own apprenticeship with Fearn in 1770. William Chawner’s apprenticeship must have gone well, because he joined Fearn and Eley as a partner in 1808, with a triple makers mark (Figure 1) being registered in that year[3]. This partnership continued until 1815, when William Chawner set up Chawner & Co (Figure 2), and moved into silversmith premises at 16 Hosier Street, West Smithfield in London which had formerly been occupied by George Smith.[4] On 16th June that year, William married Mary Burwash at St Bartholomew the Great[5]. The couple went on to have 2 children –  William Chawner (b1817) and Mary Ann Chawner (b1818).

In 1834, William Chawner died aged around 51. His son William was just 17 years old, therefore his widow Mary took over the business whilst William did his apprenticeship, however it was not to be. At the end of the 1830s William Chawner decided against joining the family business, and instead chose to go into the Church. By this time, his sister Mary Ann had married, in 1838, to George William Adams. It was agreed that he would go into the business with her mother, and a joint makers mark was registered from March – November 1840. After this, George Adams took over Chawner & Co, and ran it exceptionally well. He was an exhibitor at the 1851 Great Exhibition and the company became one of the largest producers of top quality silver flatware in Victorian England. The Chawner & Co pattern book was published in 1875, and became the encyclopedia for Victorian flatware patterns. It was heavily referenced by Ian Pickford in his now-standard reference book on silver flatware.[6]

William Chawner Figure1The 1881 census shows that George’s son, George Turner Adams (b1841) had also become a silversmith[7], and the subject of him taking over Chawner & Co must surely have been discussed. Maybe George Adams felt that his son wasn’t up to running the firm, or perhaps his son had indicated he didn’t want to remain in the business, as his uncle had done before him. Whatever the reason, George Adams sold the business in 1883 to Holland, Aldwinckle & Slater, and his son didn’t remain in silversmithing. By 1891, George T Adams had become a commercial handler of timber[8] and by 1901 a commercial traveller,[9] and by 1911 he was a commercial traveller and watchmaker.[10]

George William Adams remained close to his Chawner relatives. His brother in law William graduated from St Johns College Cambridge, and had a string of clerical appointments. He married in 1844 and had 6 children. William’s eldest son, another William Chawner (1848-1911) also went into the Church. A graduate of Emmanuel College Cambridge, he went on to become a Fellow, Tutor, Master then Vice-Chancellor of the college. Another son Alfred (1852-1916) went onto become a surgeon, physician and medical practitioner. The 1871 census shows both these nephews, then aged 23 and 18 respectively, residing with George Adams at 73 Addison Road, London[11] (Figure 3)

It was certainly a comfortable home, as the census shows the household included a cook, a housemaid and a footman. If Jonathan Chawner had foreseen the future family fortunes on that blustery January day in 1797 when he took his son to sign the apprenticeship papers, I think he would have been pleased.


[1] London Metropolitan Archive; Reference Number: COL/CHD/FR/02/1282-1287

[2] Grimwade 3112

[3] Grimwade 3114

[4] London Metropolitan Archive, Records of the Sun Fire Office, MS 11936/468/906890  15 May 1815

[5] Guildhall, St Bartholomew the Great, Register of marriages, 1813 – 1827, P69/BAT3/A/01/Ms 6779/5.

[6] Silver Flatware: English, Irish and Scottish, 1660-1980 ISBN 9780907462354

[7] UK 1881 Census RG11; Piece: 61; Folio: 118; Page: 16; GSU roll: 1341013

[8] UK 1891 Census Class: RG12; Piece: 40; Folio: 92; Page: 31; GSU Roll: 6095150

[9] UK 1901 Census Class: RG13; Piece: 22; Folio: 67; Page: 31

[10] UK 1911 Class: RG14; Piece: 255

[11] UK 1871 Census RG10; Piece:35;Folio: 113; Page: 59; GSU roll:838760

This Blog is also Available via AntiqueStalker.co.uk

Victorian Frog Loving Cup

Victorian Frog Loving Cup

Rachel Denyer (Penrose Antiques Ltd)

A loving cup is a large, two-handled mug usually associated with a wedding. However, in the mid nineteenth century loving cups were used for other purposes. For example there was a tradition of giving loving cups as a christening gift.

Elsmere & Forster Frog Loving Cup 1This loving cup (fig 1) is a particularly unusual one because it gives us an insight into a family of potters and the company Elsmore & Forster, based at Tunstall Staffordshire. Elsmore & Forster was a quality manufacturer of pottery goods, whose production ran from 1851 – 1873[1], One side the cup is painted with a traditional floral decoration (Fig 1) and on the other it is inscribed “A present for William Venables, 25 December 1860 (Fig 2). However, there is a surprise waiting for the user of this cup, because lurking within are three quite charming pottery frogs (Fig 3).

The most probable recipient of this cup was a William Venables born in Wolstanton, Staffordshire, in 1860. His family were an established Potteries family, going back to his grandfather, John Venables (b1806). The 1841 census shows John Venables resisident in Tunstall, a sub-district of Walstanton, with his wife Emma (b1806) and their 4 children.[2] By 1851, John had become an earthenware painter, and his oldest son William (b1831) had become a potter.[3] Another 2 of his children went on to become potters – by 1861, his second son John (b1832) and daugher Sarah (b1839) were both potters.[4] By 1861, William Venables had married, and was living in Burslem with his wife Emma and 2 sons – Alfred and newborn son William[5] who had been born in 1860.

Figure 2Christmas Day fell on a Tuesday that year. 1860 was a very cold December, with Lord Hatherton of Teddesley Park near Penkridge (26 miles from Burslem) recording in his diary that the Figure 3temperature had dropped to minus 10 degrees killing a number of magnolia plants, some of which were 30 years old. [6] Perhaps the loving cup was filled with hot drinks and passed to unsuspecting visitors. William himself entered the pottery industry. The 1881 census shows he was living at home with his widowed mother, and working as a clerk in an earthenware factory.[7] Beyond that date, he is difficult to identify in the censuses with any certainty. It is possible he moved away from the Staffordshire area after the death of his mother.

We will never know if the cup was made or decorated by one of the family, or if a similar one had been given 4 years earlier to his elder brother Alfred. Nevertheless, it represents a fragment of the family’s history, and the loving cup was preserved and handed down through the generations, its inscription bearing witness to its original owner. This cup is currently for sale via the Penrose Antiques Ltd Ruby Lane web site.


[2]  1841 UK Census: Class: HO107; Piece: 993; Book: 20; GSU roll: 474622

[3] 1851 UK Census. Class: HO107; Piece: 2002; Folio: 412; Page: 27; GSU roll: 87404.

[4] 1861 UK Census Class: RG 9; Piece: 1925; Folio: 36; Page: 29; GSU roll: 542888.

[5] 1861 UK Census Class: RG 9; Piece: 1928; Folio: 16; Page: 25; GSU roll: 542889

[7] 1881 UK Census Class Rg11; Piece: 2714: Folio:87; Page: 49; GSU roll: 1341650

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